Digital Humanities and Digital Preservation: a new series

Last weekend, I attended the very educational and inspiring, fun and interesting Data Driven: Digital Humanities in the Library conference at the College of Charleston. I have a lot of information to digest, and in the next few posts I will write a series of some of my notes, and some implications for my projects at the DC/SLA.

In this post, I begin with my notes from the pre-workshop readings for “From Theory to Action: A Pragmatic Approach to Digital Preservation Strategies and Tools” Workshop at the conference in Charleston, SC, June 20-22 2014.


Pre-workshop readings:

NDSA Levels of Preservation (an assessment tool for institutions and organizations)

You’ve Got To Walk Before You Can Run (high-level view of the basic requirements to make digital preservation operational)

Walk This Way (detailed steps for implementing DP – introductions to each section were recommended reading)

Library of Congres DPOE (optional)

POWRR website (optional – the group that taught the workshop is POWRR – Lots of good here)


NDSA Levels of Preservation – Where I see the DC/SLA Archives Committee:

  1. Storage and Geographic location
    1. Level 0 – still determining where things are, how they have been stored
  2. File fixity and Data integrity
    1. What is fixity? (I learned fixity is, for example, running checksums to determine if materials/digital objects have changed or been corrupted over time. Checksums are algorithm-produced unique identifiers that correspond to the contents of a file and are assigned to a specific version of a file or item).
  3. Information Security
    1. Level 0-1 – We have determined in policy documents who *should* have read authorization (the general public, in most cases, with some redactions/delays in dissemination for PII and financials)
    2. The Archives Committee will be the only ones, aside from possibly a Board liaison, to have other authorizations (edit, delete, etc.)
  4. Metadata
    1. Level 0 – We will soon be conducting an inventory of content, which will include an investigation into what metadata has been included
  5. File formats
    1. Level 0 – We will soon determine what formats have been and should be used

So, clearly, we still have a lot of work to do.

“You’ve got to walk before you can run: first steps for managing born-digital content received on physical media” (OCLC/Ricky Erway, 2012)

  • Audience: those who have or are currently acquiring such born-digital materials, but have not yet begun to manage them
  • identifying and stabilizing holdings
  • Four Essential Principles
    • Do no harm (to physical media or content)
    • Don’t do anything that unnecessarily precludes future action and use
    • Don’t let the first two principles be obstacles to action
    • Document what you do!!
  • Survey and Inventory Materials in your Current Holdings
    1. Locate existing holdings
      1. Gather info about digital media already in collections
      2. Do collections inventory to locate computer media in any physical form
    2. Count and describe all identified media (NOT mounting or viewing content on media)
      1. Gather info from donor files, acquisition records, collections, etc.
      2. Remove media but retain order by photographing digital media and storing printouts in physical collection
        1. Alternative: place separator sheets in physical collection
      3. Assign appropriate inventory # / barcode to each physical piece
      4. Record location, inventory #, type of physical medium, any identifying info found on labels /media, e.g., Creator, Title, etc.
      5. Record anything known about hardware, operating system, software; use consistent terms
      6. Count # of each media type, and indicate max capacity of each media type, max amount of data stored, then calculate overall total for the collection
      7. Return physical media to suitable storage
      8. Add summary description of digital media to any existing accession accession record, collection level record, or finding aid
    3. Prioritize collections for futher treatment, based on:
      1. value, importance, needs of collection as a whole and level of use (anticipated use) of collection
      2. whether there is danger of loss of content
      3. whether appears to be significant digital content not replicated among analog materials
      4. whether use of digital content that is replicated in analog form would add measurably to users’ ability to analyze or study content
      5. when just a few files can be represented on a page; whether printouts might suffice
    4. Repeat these steps every time you receive new media.


Walk This Way (OCLC/Julianna Barrera-Gomez, and Ricky Erway, 2013)

  • Draft a workflow before beginning? Revise during execution?
  • Existing digital preservation policies may include donor agreements (which can explain what info may be transferred from digital media) and policies on accessioning or  de-accessioning records or physical media
  • Consult policies (IT?) on software use or server backups
  • AIMS project 2012 report about digital collection stewardship provides objectives for informing policy and glossary for non-archivists
  • Documenting the project
    • What info about the process will be needed in future to understand scope, steps taken, and why?
    • provides context to ensure process; forms key part of evidence for provenance; indicates authenticity of material
    • manage associated metadata (auto-generated or manually created)
    • content management systems: Archon, Archivist’s Toolkit: use to create accession records to link from project’s documentation to other holdings
    • Create a physical project directory with folders
      • subfolders:
        • Master Folder (Preservation Copy, Archival Copy Folder)  – holds master copies of files
        • Working Folder – holds working copies of master files
        • Documentation Folder – to hold metadata and other information associated with the project
  • Preparing the Workstation (Mandatory) – this may be a problem, unless we find a way around having a physical workstation for preservation work.
    • dedicated workstation to connect to source media
    • start with a single type of media from a collection to aid efficiency and keeping track of materials, metadata.
    • What alternatives to this? Physical space and financial obstacles for DC/SLA
    • Use a computer that is regularly scanned for viruses
    • consider keeping it non-networked until a connection is needed (e.g., for file transfers, software/virus definition updates)
    • DO NOT open files on source media!
  • Connect the source media
    • Examine media for cracks/breaks/defects
    • Consider removing sticky notes or other ephemera (take digital photo first)
    • DO NOT attempt to open files yet!
  • Transfer Data
    • Copy files or create a disk image
      • Copy files individually or in groups – practical way for new archivists to get started
      • Disk image – more info is captured, easier to ensure authenticity. Makes exact, sector-by-sector bit stream copy of a disk’s contents, retaining original metadata. Make a single file containing an authentic copy of the files and file system structure on a disk.
        • Forensic images image everything, including deleted files and unallocated space. Logical copies omit deleted files and unallocated space. 
  • Check for viruses
  • Record the file directory
    • Make a copy of the directory tree
  • Run Checksums or Hashes
    • unique value, based on contents of a file and is generated by specific algorithms (different ones – consistency is important)
    • identify whether/when a file has changed
    • regularly hashing a file or image you have copied and checking those new hashes against the hashes made at the time of the transfer should be part of your digital curation workflow
  • Securing project files
    • consolidate documentation
  • Prepare for Storage
    • arrange for space on a backed-up network server that is secure
  • Transfer to a secure location
    • additional copies – preservation master copies that must be kept safe from unintentional alteration
  • Store or de-accession source media
    • if destruction, use a secure method in conjunction with donor agreement and policies
  • Validate file types
    • determine whether you can open and read the contents of digital files (from the working copies!)
    • use working copies
    • hex editors – show file properties (byte representation)
  • Assess Contet (optional)
    • use working copies
  • Reviewing files 
    • only working copies
  • Finding duplicate files
    • if you delete, you will need to delete from the Master Folder already moved to secure storage
  • Dealing with Personally Identifying or Sensitive information
    • sensitive information must be kept restricted and secure on workstations, file servers, backup or transfer copies
    • Redact or anonymize before making available to users 

Reference librarianship in a collegiate environment

After quite a long hiatus, I have returned to Cultural Heritage and Information. I aim to get back to posting regularly, every Wednesday or Thursday.

Today’s subject is a personal one – what I’ve been learning in my newest position as a reference specialist at a small library in a large community college library network.


The library I work in has a very diverse population of users, with students and community patrons from around the globe. My evening shifts coincide with some of the busiest hours, since many students work during the day and attend school at night. The library is smallish, with a main collection of non-fiction, academic books, a designated computer room as well as computers on the main floor, access to several large and subject-oriented databases, a DVD section and a small section devoted to rotating fiction books. Continue reading

Earth Day Assignment: Donations for Trees

My cousin just offered me a unique opportunity. He asked me a question about charities. It being Earth Day, he wanted to donate money to plant a tree. But he didn’t know where to start. Since I also blog about environmental issues, he asked if I could help him out. I love researching, and have lots of recent experience in online researching, so I said of course! I imagine reference librarians go through a similar process, although I haven’t taken the course yet… All in all, a very fun and rewarding experience.

I’ve copied the post (and his comments and follow-up questions and my answers) below: 

The criteria: an organization that takes donations with a low overhead percentage; an organization that will plant a tree for donations.

1. First, there’s always Google. American Forests allows donations to plant trees where they are needed most, and for specific causes (see the drop-down menu). According to the second option, every dollar donated plants one tree. Each option has a brief description of the project. Their 2007 report, found here, states that they give grants to 35 partners to restore forest ecosystems by planting millions of trees. So not only do you know that your money is going to tree-planting, you know specifically for which project the tree will be planted. If you’re worried about your rights as a donor, look here for their Donor Bill of Rights.

2. Here’s another option (that doesn’t necessarily fit the criteria but might be interesting nonetheless): Volunteer to plant trees in your area. Like Denver. If you plant a tree by yourself, instead of with the Mile High Million (see previous link), you can still register your tree, and make it count towards the million trees that make up the organization’s goal. An organization that includes tree planting as part of a different range of activities is Boulder Mountainbike Alliance.

3. Googling a “city” with “tree planting charities” leads to an interesting notion – look up charities in the local yellow pages or online equivalent, and contact a local tree-planting organization. I know Washington, D.C. hosts an organization called Casey Trees, where volunteers plant trees in the city, to restore the city’s tree canopy. They gratefully accept donations, and although unlike American Forests, do not plant specific trees for your donation, you will know that your money supports tree-planting. You can also donate a large amount ($550) to have a commemorative tree planted specially.

In Canada, you can donate to Tree Canada, where you can designate which program you want your money to assist, and Trees Ontario, where your donation will support the tree-planting infrastructure. With the second, your money may not be used specifically for planting a tree, but you’ll know you’re supporting tree-planting in general, and it won’t be difficult to imagine that special tree your money planted.

To conclude, the first option is probably easiest, with the others requiring slightly more investigation and hands-on action, but they’re all viable options for donating trees and money for tree-planting. It should go without saying that the closer you are to the tree-planting or the organization that is doing the planting, the more input and feedback you’ll have about what your money achieved.

His response, and follow-up question:

Thanks for the input!
I tried a google search similar to your first recommendation, and while I didn’t find anything similar, I suppose maybe I didn’t know what I was looking for.
I have another question: is there somewhere that reports on the progress and actions of different charities as an objective 3rd party? Not like I’ll be donating tens of thousands of dollars, but I would like to support organizations that have a record of doing what they say they will.

My answers:

Hm. Well, like I mentioned in the blurb about American Forests, you can look at their annual report and see how they use their money in general. As for a third-party… it appears that the BBB reports on national charities. The link shows you the American Forests general info and report. I’m not sure if there is an equivalent for state charities, but you might try your state government website for more clues.

You can also search news articles for them, if you want more info, but this would probably be labor-intensive.

After another brief search:

Aha! does have a listing of Non-Profit and Charity Evaluators, here.